A collaboration between the Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia and the Global Disaster Resilience Centre (GDRC) at the University of Huddersfield, UK

 

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What is this collaboration and research project about?

Coastal urban agglomerations are especially exposed to the impacts of climate change and disaster risks. In the coming decades, climate-induced extreme events are expected to increase and will continue to affect natural and human systems independently or in combination with other determinants to alter the productivity, diversity and functions of many ecosystems and livelihoods. Climate change and disaster impacts threaten to exacerbate existing vulnerabilities and further entrench development disparities.

There is also increasing recognition that disaster risk reduction (DRR) should include climate change adaptation (CCA). These two perspectives have been developed by different communities, but the aim of both is to reduce vulnerability and hazard exposure in order to increase resilience to the potential adverse impacts of climate extremes.

This collaboration and research project will develop researcher capacity and novel, integrated DDR and CCA strategies that can protect centres of economic growth and development outcomes in coastal urban agglomerations. Through documented Indonesia case studies and international good practices, and a stakeholder map of DRR and CCA actors at the city level, the project will develop a multi stakeholder transition pathway and a clear policy statement on mainstreaming DRR and CCA in Indonesia’s coastal urban agglomeration development plan.

The project will reduce disaster risk, including human and economic losses, and create more resilient, connected communities. It will foster multi-stakeholder involvement in development processes and equal participation of groups who are often excluded, such as women, children and youth, and people with disabilities. It will directly contribute to Indonesia’s efforts in working towards the targets set out in the global agreements on disaster risk reduction (Sendai Framework), Climate Change (COP21) and Sustainable Development Goals.

 

Who is funding it?

The project is jointly funded by the British Council Institutional Links Newton Fund and Indonesia’s Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia (Ristekdikti). 

The Newton Fund is part of the UK’s official development assistance programme. The fund is £75 million each year from 2014 for five years.  Through the Newton Fund, the UK will use its strength in research and innovation to promote economic development and social welfare of partner countries. By working together on research and innovation projects, the UK will build strong and sustainable relationships with partner countries. This will support the continued excellence of UK research and innovation to unlock opportunities for wider collaboration and trade.

 

Why is it important?

Indonesia has both the fastest urbanisation growth rate and the largest share of urban population globally, rising to 67% by 2025 (UN, 2010). Urban agglomerations also emit significant and growing amounts of greenhouse gases (IPCC 2014) and Short-lived Climate Pollutants, that contribute to global warming, but also impact public health, food, water (CCAC 2015).

Coastal urban agglomerations are especially exposed to the impacts of climate change and disaster risks. In the coming decades, climate- induced extreme events are expected to increase (IPCC 2014). These changes will continue to affect natural and human systems independently or in combination with other determinants to alter the productivity, diversity and functions of many ecosystems and livelihoods. Climate change impacts and variability threaten to exacerbate existing vulnerabilities and further entrench development disparities.

2015 was identified as a pivotal year, as most of the world’s nations, including the UK and Indonesia, came together to sign landmark agreements on DRR (Sendai), climate change (COP21) and sustainable development (SDGs). They all emphasised the need to accelerate national governments’ efforts in building more sustainable, disaster resilient urban communities.

There is also increasing recognition that DRR should include CCA. These two perspectives have been developed by different communities, but the aim of both is to reduce vulnerability and hazard exposure in order to increase resilience to the potential adverse impacts of climate extremes (IPCC, 2012). The integration of the two fields provides opportunities to strengthen the common parts and improve the management of present and future hazards and risks (Rivera and Wamsler, 2014).

Despite such potential benefits there remains some significant challenges (Rivera, 2014). DRR and CAA remain distinct fields and collaboration has proven difficult. There are separate communities of working on DRR and CCA, with limited overlap in networks, fora and methods. In Indonesia environmental authorities have the responsibility for CCA and its mainstreaming in the planning of line ministries, while DRR is a truly cross-sectoral approach because of the vast array of possible disasters.

 

What differences will it make?

This collaboration and research project addresses the Climate Change and Urban Development thematic priority areas of the UK – Indonesia Science Technology Fund. The collaboration will develop novel, integrated risk reduction strategies that can protect centres of economic growth and development outcomes in coastal urban agglomerations within Indonesia and elsewhere. Coastal urban agglomerations are especially exposed to the impacts of climate change and disaster risks. Yet these impacts are not distributed or felt uniformly, as those with the least resources have the least capacity to adapt and are the most vulnerable.

This research plan has been developed through gaps that emerged from the Researcher Links workshop held in October 2015, consultations with IOC/UNESCO working groups, and discussions with the Ministry of Land and Spatial Planning.

Through documented Indonesia case studies and international good practices, and a stakeholder map of DRR and CCA actors at the city level, the project will develop a multi stakeholder transition pathway and a clear policy statement on mainstreaming DRR and CCA in Indonesia’s coastal urban agglomeration development plan. The pathway will provide a framework to support the Ministry of Agrarian and Spatial Planning and DRR and CCA actors at the city level, including communication and collaboration channels between these communities, action plans and capacity building that can be adapted locally. The project will reduce disaster risk, including human and economic losses, and create more resilient, connected communities. It will foster multi-stakeholder involvement in development processes and equal participation of groups who are often excluded, such as women, children and youth, and people with disabilities. It will directly contribute to Indonesia’s efforts in working towards the targets set out in the 2015 DRR (Sendai Framework), Climate Change and Sustainable Development agreements.

 

Who is involved in the project?

ITB, as a research university, is the center for development of science, technology and art (IPTEKS) on the basis of research and orientation to community services. This research will support ITB’s goal to contribute to Indonesia’s development, including supporting its targets towards the SDGs and Sendai Framework. Dr Harkunti Rahayu has a PhD in Engineering from Kochi University of Technology, Japan. She is currently active in the Institute of Technology Bandung as Faculty Member of Department of City and Regional Planning, and Member of Research Group on Policy Development and Planning from School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development. She has extensive experience of working in coastal regions, and is currently Chair of Working Group 1 of Intergovernmental Coordination Group on Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System (ICG/IOTWS) for 2015 – 2017, focusing on Tsunami Risk, Community Awareness and Preparedness, with 28 Member States from Indian Ocean Region.

The Global Disaster Resilience Centre (GDRC) at the University of Huddersfield (HUD), UK is a global leader in multi-disciplinary research, education and advocacy to improve the resilience of nations and communities. HUD will benefit from increased levels of exposure and visibility on the international stage and by working in Indonesia on such a critical global challenge.

Richard Haigh is Professor in Disaster Resilience at HUD and has an international reputation in disaster management.  He co-leads GDRC and is responsible for supporting research on disaster management portfolios. He is Academic Advisor and a UK Advocate for the UN Making Cities Resilient campaign, with over 3000 partner cities. He is currently co-investigator on the ESPREssO Horizon 2020 project, a €2m EURO grant that is examining the integration of DRR and CCA in Europe, as well as the challenge of translating science into policy. He is the Co-Editor of International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment (http://www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/ijdrbe.htm), the only journal to promote research and scholarly activity that examines the role of building and construction to anticipate and respond to unexpected events that damage or destroy the built environment. A full list of Richard’s publications, projects, and national and international activities can be found at www.richardhaigh.info.

A multi-stakeholder, multi-sector approach is needed to engage actors involved in relevant development sectors, including, education, agriculture, environment, land use planning, urban development and local government, and across different communities, from politicians and community leaders, to public authorities, the scientific community and policy-makers, to households, civil society and the private sector.

Key actors are engaged as Associate Partners and who will be able to support and facilitate the transition pathway. These include the Ministry of Agrarian and Spatial Planning that is responsible for coordinating and supervising spatial planning, implementing national spatial planning (RTRWN), and coordinating the formulation and implementation of cross-sectoral and cross-border spatial planning. The National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) is the Indonesian government institution responsible for coordinating the planning and implementation of disaster management activities. The Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysical Agency (BMKG) is a non-departmental government institution in Indonesia that has main duties in the field of meteorology, climatology, and geophysics. BMKG also collects data on weather, climate and earthquakes from more than 200 observation stations all over Indonesia. The University of Andelas will also be engaged in key dissemination events to ensure that the benefits of the project extend to the wider research and innovation community in Indonesia.

Providing a regional perspective, the ICG for the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System has a comprehensive programme of capacity-building on tsunami protection for the Indian Ocean.